History of Sewage in Tehran Province

 

Operation of sewage plans in Iran has not been in accordance with water projects. In other cities of Iran such as Rasht, Kermanshah, Sanandaj, Khoramabad and Ahvaz, traditional systems and absorption wells were used. In Esfehan, sewerage transport was carried out through traditional wells and well-wheels. In 1957, the first sewage pipelines were introduced. By 1961, 85km of sewers had been installed. In 1970, a wastewater treatment plant was established and in 1975 studies for two other were carried out. Sewage in Tehran city was also disposed through absorption wells in the past, when the population was not high, and in order to prevent contamination of underground water canals and well, they were placed away from them. With the growth of population and the city itself, wells and underground canals were no longer enough for providing water and dams of Latyan, Lar and Karaj were constructed. These new resources affected the natural water cycle and the level of underground water beds have steadily increased, which has caused the concern of the possibility of mixing these waters with sewage. In some places the increasement of water levels was so much that water leaked to basements of houses. On the other hand, development of the city into stone and clay beds created another problem. Because digging sewage wells are not practical in these areas. As a result, waterways and qanats turned into sewage canals and became contaminated.

History of Tehran sewage project

In 1971, primary studies of a sewage plan were started by UNDP and WHO. The final report of the first stage of the studies was presented in 1974 by Alexander Gibb and John Taylor Consultants with collaboration from Tehran Boston and Koros to collect Tehran’s sewage and surface waters. In 1976, finalizing the studies of the first stage and starting the second stage of Tehran sewage network was submitted to Alexander Gibb, John Taylor and Infotec Consultants, and studies for collecting surface waters was given to the Municipality of Tehran by the Ministry of Energy. The complementary studies for the first phase were concluded in 1977 for a span of 25 years. The studies then were interrupted for several years and fundamental changes in the principles of the plan, especially population structure and city limits, occurred. In 1985, for reviewing and updating the previous plan based on the new conditions, the reviewing of the first phase and studies for the second phase was given to “Ray Ab Consultants”. The reviewing concluded in 1986 and was approved by the regional water compay of Tehran and the studies for the second phase began. Since the client was changed to Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company and because of high costs, actions took place to receive a loan from the World Bank, which caused further revisions in the principles of the first phase. Because of lack of hygienic disposal of sewage and the need for execution of the plan as soon as possible, in 1993, controlling the studies of the first phase and the second one based on the occurred changes was submitted to “Mahab Qods Consultants”. On 15 May 1994, in a meeting in Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company, after the evaluation of the plan, the principles and studies were approved and producing executive maps was begun.

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